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I am tormented with an everlasting itch for things remote

- Herman Melville

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Op-Ed

Sep 04, 2018

Mass Trekking in India: A Disease For Which We’ll All Suffer

From unreported deaths, to unsustainable human activity and environmental degradation. India's national heritage is at stake.

WRITTEN BY

Vaibhav Kala

Statistics say that the outdoors is now nearly 70% of all leisure, vacation based travel, globally. This has massive ramifications in a country like India – where guidelines are available, but actual regulation, monitoring and implementation are abysmal.

Cause and effect: a hugely improved economy, increased and better road networks, the aviation revolution, internet and accessibility and a heightened sense of individual self-expression and need for fulfillment, aided by increased economic ability, have helped catapult adventure holidays to the fore. This is especially true for commercial trekking in the high Himalaya, an activity that has grown to four or five times its industry size over the last decade.

India’s adventure travel industry began in the 1980s with a handful of outdoorsmen and women, who launched businesses with minimal resources, in an era when international borders were shut off in terms of importing equipment, and a consumer market that was non-existent. It was an era of telex machines, 286 computers, and faxes were the next big thing (if you had the joy of having international dialing on your landline!).

Then, in the late 1990s, everything changed. India’s economy liberalized, and travel magazines and the internet brought in images of meadows, high passes and camping outdoors. The romance of adventure travel in the Himalaya began to stream into ordinary homes across India via slow-loading HTML pages. With the opening of the Indian economy, this adventure industry began to canter, as our large population of motivated young people began to receive salaries that allowed for a reasonable, if not substantial, disposable income.

Roopkund trail, 2017. Note the number of toilet tents – the smaller, narrow tents in the corners of the image – vs. the number of regular tents.

Then came the big revolution. Multinationals, software companies, startups, IPOs, online shopping and e-commerce… and the true gallop! A new breed of outdoor companies began to be created, and to flourish. With no regulatory barriers to entry, no checks and balances, individuals with no background in the adventure space began launching adventure travel companies. All one needed, all one needs even today from the Government of India to run an adventure outfit in the country, is a certificate of incorporation from the Registrar of Companies, Ministry of Corporate Affairs. That’s it. By law, there is no requirement for permits, no experience, no certifications, no insurance.

So, a couple tents and a website, and anyone or everyone who wants to join the galloping adventure tourism bandwagon, may do so. These new companies, more software savvy and outdoors unaware, began to change the game. Throw in a few exhausted ex-corporate executives, and you had a few more people of means who joined the industry. A real churn began from 2008-10 onwards.

With no ethical understanding of ‘Leave No Trace’ principles, and scant overall outdoor experience, first-time trekkers began to tramp trails high and low.

All of a sudden, internet videos and WordPress blogs posts began to surface spouting tall online claims of “pioneering” and “reinventing trekking in India”. As the large Indian market began to move towards the mountains, these new, online-savvy companies hurtled first-time customers into fragile environments which were completely unprepared for the numbers. The lack of experience and expertise of the organisers also showed. Back to back trekking groups marching into high Himalayan valleys and passes that had perhaps seen only a few dozens human beings a year in throughout history, arrived in conveyor-belt operations. With no ethical understanding of ‘Leave No Trace’ principles, and scant overall outdoor experience, first-time trekkers began to tramp trails high and low. Pushed forward by companies that touted a series of FULL departures – but wait – there’s always room for more! In an unregulated legal environment, more and more mass players started a price war, mixed into this deadly cocktail, the unaware customer. The Indian adventure travel industry is speeding towards an ecosystem of operators and clients least invested in keeping the unique value of the Indian outdoors alive. Value-based pricing has been cast aside. Deceptive, discounted pricing models settle in. All that matters is getting a piece of this giant pie –  a business lesson from the great corporate e-commerce game!

Roopkund trail, 2017

The result? Mass human movement into once-pristine ecological zones. More bums on non-existent toilet seats, more human waste in Himalayan meadows, and more feet repeatedly churning up fragile trails. Illegal fixed camps in Reserved Forests zones and even National Parks (so that these companies could save repeated ferries of supplies and equipment, and thus additional porterage forest fee/charges). Poor guest to guide ratios. A 20-something ‘English-speaking’ guide with little outdoor experience herding groups of 25-30 trekkers (sometimes more) up trails from camp to camp. Campsites getting degraded with these massive numbers, and an unacceptably low ratio of toilet tents to human beings, disincentivizing their clients to use them, and then the outdoors is littered with toilet paper and human feces. (Some campsites like the Stok Kangri base camp and high altitude Roopkund lake) are still bear witness to this ignominy.

Roopkund trail, 2017

The overall economic benefit of this activity is minuscule compared to the damage caused. But what’s worse, fatal accidents began to happen. Inexperienced guides who did not recognize dehydration, exhaustion or onset of Acute Mountain Sickness. Besides a lack of experience, there simply weren’t even enough to monitor the crowds they were expected to handle in the high mountains! And to no surprise, with this came deaths. Due to a simple lack of knowledge, basic leadership and mountain experience, and guide-client monitoring. So many unreported deaths have occurred in the last four years, that it is unbelievable that no steps had been taken to mitigate the risk – and only spoken of now, after trekking has been banned in Uttarakhand.

Some examples of how deaths have been covered.

What will come of it? With this ban, these companies may spread this model to different parts of the Himalaya, or elsewhere in India. Whatever actions are taken, whatever regulations enacted and hopefully enforced, have to be national. This is our national heritage, and its preservation and access must be the responsibility of all users. Every week that passes is another week lost.

So what can we do? Access control is the need of the hour. Registered companies and guides are a must. No operation = No access must be implemented. The privilege of being in the outdoors must come with a price to pay for its upkeep. The sheer number of trekkers and overall human activity must be limited, to avoid an utter destruction of our natural resources.

Roopkund trail, 2017

It really is quite simple. Creating an adventure travel company and a business that takes people outdoors, is not the same as starting a multi-national corporation. It is more about getting back to the basics, about living well, living in tune with nature, and preserving our natural environment and national heritage. That is how it was always supposed to be done. Keep it safe, keep it small, keep it sustainable!

The Adventure Tour Operators Association of India (ATOAI) Risk Mitigation Committee is leading a charge in September to recommend changes at a national level, to better preserve India’s outdoor heritage. We spoke to the Committee Chairman, Vaibhav Kala, whose views are printed above. The author’s opinions are his or her own, and do not necessarily reflect The Outdoor Journal’s views or reporting. The Outdoor Journal supports better practices in wilderness conservation through outdoor recreation.  

As this article is listed under our Op-Ed category, this piece is an *opinion*. As is usual across media, the author’s opinions are his or her own, and do not necessarily reflect  The Outdoor Journal’s views or reporting.

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Op-Ed

Mar 22, 2019

Dear Winter… An Open Letter To Snow, Ice and Jack Frost.

As the snow begins to melt, and the sun breaks through the clouds, Brooke Hess, with seasonal anxiety in tow, discusses her relationship with the seasons in an open letter.

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WRITTEN BY

Brooke Hess

Dear Winter,

I awoke this morning to sunnier skies and warmer temps than I’ve experienced in months. The nearly 4-foot high snow drifts in my front yard have melted down to 2 feet, and the icy ruts in the road that prevented me from driving my 2-wheel drive vehicle around town are gone. People are out and about trail running, road biking, and enjoying the first sunshine of 2019.

Walking past the river, the seemingly endless ice dams covering the river from bank to bank, are gone. The ice has broken and the river is free-flowing once again. The banks are still covered in snow and ice, but being able to see moving water again is, in my book, the first official sign of Spring.

With this first sign of Spring comes my first feelings of seasonal anxiety. Prior to today, it was ski season. Temps never rose above freezing, and Spring activities weren’t an option. Skiing was the only option, and the only decision I needed to make was which drainage in the Bitterroot Mountains I wanted to explore that day. But today, I find myself in a dilemma. Do I continue skiing and enjoying the slightly safer backcountry conditions that Spring brings? Or do I break out my boat, paddle, and enjoy the first Spring river runs of the season?

Realistically, it is still ski season in the mountains. It has not warmed up enough to melt the snow up high, and some of the bigger backcountry lines are actually just now becoming stable enough for skiers. Again, rationally, temperatures in town are still in the lower 40’s. There is still ice on the river banks, and the river levels are low. It is not kayaking season.

And yet, I can’t help but feel the itch to get into my boat. It has been way too long since I have felt the splash of whitewater on my face. Since I have felt nervous at the top of a rapid. Since I have had the satisfaction of being taken down the river by gravity. But when I think about it, this is also what I did in the fall with skiing. As soon as the first storm came in November, I was skinning up the local ski area, nearly a month before it opened up for the season. Just so I could get a few good turns in. It wasn’t yet ski season, but I was so eager for the season to change… so eager to see you, Winter, that I ignored this fact. I was thinking in terms of the future. Not in terms of the present. I couldn’t wait for you, Winter. But that was then, and this is now.

It’s not that I don’t love you, Winter.

I’m not seasonally confused. But I am over it. I am over the icy ruts in the road. I am over having to put on my expedition parka and pack boots just to take out the trash. I am over having to turn on my car 20 minutes before I need to head out in the morning, just to thaw the nearly centimeter-thick ice layer on my windshield. I am over waking up 30 minutes early to shovel the sidewalk. I am over you, Winter.

It’s not that I don’t love you, Winter. I do. I love the snow. I love skiing. I love ice skating. I love drinking whiskey cocoa after a cold day in the mountains. I love it all.

But I have gotten everything out of my relationship with you that I can. I am ready to go kayaking again. I am ready to go trail running in shorts. I am ready for barbecues and campfires. Bike rides and river runs. I am ready for something new. I am moving on.

Spring understand me better. Spring and I share the same plans for the future. We share the same values that you, Winter, just don’t have.

So, with that, I am ending our monogamous relationship. But I am just wondering… can we stay friends?

After all, December is only nine months away…

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