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A true conservationist is a man who knows that the world is not given by his fathers, but borrowed from his children.

- John James Audubon


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Op-Ed

Sep 04, 2018

Mass Trekking in India: A Disease For Which We’ll All Suffer

From unreported deaths, to unsustainable human activity and environmental degradation. India's national heritage is at stake.

WRITTEN BY

Vaibhav Kala

Statistics say that the outdoors is now nearly 70% of all leisure, vacation based travel, globally. This has massive ramifications in a country like India – where guidelines are available, but actual regulation, monitoring and implementation are abysmal.

Cause and effect: a hugely improved economy, increased and better road networks, the aviation revolution, internet and accessibility and a heightened sense of individual self-expression and need for fulfillment, aided by increased economic ability, have helped catapult adventure holidays to the fore. This is especially true for commercial trekking in the high Himalaya, an activity that has grown to four or five times its industry size over the last decade.

India’s adventure travel industry began in the 1980s with a handful of outdoorsmen and women, who launched businesses with minimal resources, in an era when international borders were shut off in terms of importing equipment, and a consumer market that was non-existent. It was an era of telex machines, 286 computers, and faxes were the next big thing (if you had the joy of having international dialing on your landline!).

Then, in the late 1990s, everything changed. India’s economy liberalized, and travel magazines and the internet brought in images of meadows, high passes and camping outdoors. The romance of adventure travel in the Himalaya began to stream into ordinary homes across India via slow-loading HTML pages. With the opening of the Indian economy, this adventure industry began to canter, as our large population of motivated young people began to receive salaries that allowed for a reasonable, if not substantial, disposable income.

Roopkund trail, 2017. Note the number of toilet tents – the smaller, narrow tents in the corners of the image – vs. the number of regular tents.

Then came the big revolution. Multinationals, software companies, startups, IPOs, online shopping and e-commerce… and the true gallop! A new breed of outdoor companies began to be created, and to flourish. With no regulatory barriers to entry, no checks and balances, individuals with no background in the adventure space began launching adventure travel companies. All one needed, all one needs even today from the Government of India to run an adventure outfit in the country, is a certificate of incorporation from the Registrar of Companies, Ministry of Corporate Affairs. That’s it. By law, there is no requirement for permits, no experience, no certifications, no insurance.

So, a couple tents and a website, and anyone or everyone who wants to join the galloping adventure tourism bandwagon, may do so. These new companies, more software savvy and outdoors unaware, began to change the game. Throw in a few exhausted ex-corporate executives, and you had a few more people of means who joined the industry. A real churn began from 2008-10 onwards.

With no ethical understanding of ‘Leave No Trace’ principles, and scant overall outdoor experience, first-time trekkers began to tramp trails high and low.

All of a sudden, internet videos and WordPress blogs posts began to surface spouting tall online claims of “pioneering” and “reinventing trekking in India”. As the large Indian market began to move towards the mountains, these new, online-savvy companies hurtled first-time customers into fragile environments which were completely unprepared for the numbers. The lack of experience and expertise of the organisers also showed. Back to back trekking groups marching into high Himalayan valleys and passes that had perhaps seen only a few dozens human beings a year in throughout history, arrived in conveyor-belt operations. With no ethical understanding of ‘Leave No Trace’ principles, and scant overall outdoor experience, first-time trekkers began to tramp trails high and low. Pushed forward by companies that touted a series of FULL departures – but wait – there’s always room for more! In an unregulated legal environment, more and more mass players started a price war, mixed into this deadly cocktail, the unaware customer. The Indian adventure travel industry is speeding towards an ecosystem of operators and clients least invested in keeping the unique value of the Indian outdoors alive. Value-based pricing has been cast aside. Deceptive, discounted pricing models settle in. All that matters is getting a piece of this giant pie –  a business lesson from the great corporate e-commerce game!

Roopkund trail, 2017

The result? Mass human movement into once-pristine ecological zones. More bums on non-existent toilet seats, more human waste in Himalayan meadows, and more feet repeatedly churning up fragile trails. Illegal fixed camps in Reserved Forests zones and even National Parks (so that these companies could save repeated ferries of supplies and equipment, and thus additional porterage forest fee/charges). Poor guest to guide ratios. A 20-something ‘English-speaking’ guide with little outdoor experience herding groups of 25-30 trekkers (sometimes more) up trails from camp to camp. Campsites getting degraded with these massive numbers, and an unacceptably low ratio of toilet tents to human beings, disincentivizing their clients to use them, and then the outdoors is littered with toilet paper and human feces. (Some campsites like the Stok Kangri base camp and high altitude Roopkund lake) are still bear witness to this ignominy.

Roopkund trail, 2017

The overall economic benefit of this activity is minuscule compared to the damage caused. But what’s worse, fatal accidents began to happen. Inexperienced guides who did not recognize dehydration, exhaustion or onset of Acute Mountain Sickness. Besides a lack of experience, there simply weren’t even enough to monitor the crowds they were expected to handle in the high mountains! And to no surprise, with this came deaths. Due to a simple lack of knowledge, basic leadership and mountain experience, and guide-client monitoring. So many unreported deaths have occurred in the last four years, that it is unbelievable that no steps had been taken to mitigate the risk – and only spoken of now, after trekking has been banned in Uttarakhand.

Some examples of how deaths have been covered.

What will come of it? With this ban, these companies may spread this model to different parts of the Himalaya, or elsewhere in India. Whatever actions are taken, whatever regulations enacted and hopefully enforced, have to be national. This is our national heritage, and its preservation and access must be the responsibility of all users. Every week that passes is another week lost.

So what can we do? Access control is the need of the hour. Registered companies and guides are a must. No operation = No access must be implemented. The privilege of being in the outdoors must come with a price to pay for its upkeep. The sheer number of trekkers and overall human activity must be limited, to avoid an utter destruction of our natural resources.

Roopkund trail, 2017

It really is quite simple. Creating an adventure travel company and a business that takes people outdoors, is not the same as starting a multi-national corporation. It is more about getting back to the basics, about living well, living in tune with nature, and preserving our natural environment and national heritage. That is how it was always supposed to be done. Keep it safe, keep it small, keep it sustainable!

The Adventure Tour Operators Association of India (ATOAI) Risk Mitigation Committee is leading a charge in September to recommend changes at a national level, to better preserve India’s outdoor heritage. We spoke to the Committee Chairman, Vaibhav Kala, whose views are printed above. The author’s opinions are his or her own, and do not necessarily reflect The Outdoor Journal’s views or reporting. The Outdoor Journal supports better practices in wilderness conservation through outdoor recreation.  

As this article is listed under our Op-Ed category, this piece is an *opinion*. As is usual across media, the author’s opinions are his or her own, and do not necessarily reflect  The Outdoor Journal’s views or reporting.

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News

Oct 10, 2018

A Note From The Editor On World Mental Health Day

Our Editor-In-Chief Apoorva Prasad explains the paradox that is his own life, and how important the outdoors is to his own mental health.

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WRITTEN BY

Apoorva Prasad

Science tells us that screen time is bad for our health, both physical and mental. As a startup CEO, I literally have no time for anything. Multitasking in front of multiple screens is practically the very definition of the job (actually, it’s six or seven jobs at the same time).

Apoorva Prasad

There’s a massive paradox in running a startup that espouses being outdoors, and the reality of not being able to get out and do what I love. It’s why I started this in the first place. It demands a huge sacrifice. I’d be lying if I said that I didn’t wake up on most days feeling ready to quit it all to just go climb, hike, ski or sail, to travel, to write and shoot, all the things I once did. Instead, I need to manage projects and people, look at charts, apps, spreadsheets and reply to hundreds of unread emails, some more pressing than others.

Sometimes I walk. A lot. In the evenings, as dusk turns to night, and I’ve left work, I just start walking. Sometimes I know which direction to take, sort of, and other times I just turn randomly, in an attempt to lose myself. As someone who has traveled the world and lived in many countries and cities, it is somehow incredibly difficult for me to genuinely get lost.

I climb to remain sane.

The times when I actually feel myself, feel normal, is when I manage to get out for a day of climbing or being outdoors in a focused way. It’s like mental therapy. The sound of the forest, and the trail underfoot. The light streaming through leaves. The texture and smell of rock. Focusing on little things, putting on a harness and tying on climbing shoes, and the immediate pain in your toes that focuses your attention on the single task at hand. The lack of screens and competing devices and incoming notifications and annoying pings. Leaving all that behind is one of the greatest joys I have when I’m in Berdorf, a climbing area not far from Luxembourg city. It’s magical, in the way that one of my first climbing crags was – Annapolis Rocks, on the Appalachian Trail, not far from Frederick, Maryland. Or the Gunks, in upstate New York, and Seneca Rocks, in West Virginia, where I learned how to trad climb. Back then, learning to climb was a way to prove something to myself, a single-minded passion and devotion linked deeply in my mind to escape and freedom.

A young fresh faced Editor-in-Chief, Apoorva Prasad

Now, I don’t need to prove anything to myself or anyone else. I don’t need to climb hard, I just need to climb to be outside, and get away from the clamor of this increasingly busy world. I climb to remain sane.

more than anything else, talk to someone about it

If any of you are struggling with stress and the everyday challenges of life, yet you still read our stories and dream of the outdoors. I encourage you to get out there, be a kid, grab your trainers, grab your chalk bag, or just book the holiday that you deserve, and of course, more than anything else, talk to someone about it. In a perfect world, drag your friend along too, they might just need the outdoors as much as you do.

The world is your playground.

More information about World Mental Health Day can be found here. Depending on where you live there are also a wealth of resources, our favourites include Movember who offer help around the world. In the UK, the NHS lists all the organisations that offer help. The National Institute of Mental Health also lists places where you can find help in the USA.

Cover photo: The last time AP went snowboarding for a day away from office… with steep-skier Sebastien de Sainte Marie

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