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What’s the use of a fine house if you haven’t got a tolerable planet to put it on?

- Henry David Thoreau

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Environment

Aug 23, 2018

A Ban on Rafting and Poor Governance in Uttarakhand

Rafting has vastly boosted the local economy. The government didn’t provide these jobs, but has benefited from them. If not thankful, the state could have been a little mindful.

WRITTEN BY

Jahnvi Pananchikal

The recent and total rafting ban, four years after a ban on rafting camps, has stirred uncomfortable conversations in the adventure community. Perhaps it’s time that we all learnt a lesson.

Here’s a good place to start: Eco-tourism is sustainable, helping the environment and the local community. Mass tourism is damaging and inconsiderate, usually with a detrimental effect on the natural environment.

Adventure sports can be integrated either sustainably or unsustainably. It largely depends on how they are introduced and handled by the regional government and the local community.

“Rafting is a self-generating business; people have found employment by themselves.”

The natural environment in Uttarakhand has a lot to offer as a peaceful retreat and a source of income, in ways that are respectful to nature and sustainable for the community. However, the government’s disorganised approach, focused on short-term-benefits, has landed this state in much trouble. Government bodies have legislated regulations and policies without consideration for a longterm strategy.

“Rafting is a self-generating business; people have found employment by themselves. The government gets taxes from the local development, but receives a lot more money from power and road projects. Comparatively, it’s not worth their time. They look at the bigger fish,” tells Pradeep Raj Singh, Founder of Paddy Adventures.

Recent Public Interest Litigation (PIL) filed in courts serve as warning signals against the impact of mass tourism. This is clearly the time for thoughtful organisation and constructive dialogue.

Both of the recent PILs led to court orders without advance notice. Detailed surveys of existing ecological footprints were missing and local employment was not considered.  The recent ban was imposed without taking into account that over 40,000 people are directly or indirectly employed by 280 rafting companies.

“Currently, there is no right leadership in the state. But there’s a lot of scope. You just need the right kind of approaches and perspectives.”

“We were given a permit every year to do adventure sports for 18 years, with listed rules and regulations,” laments Vipin, Founder of Red Chilli Adventures. “Yet the high court puts an order and asks the government to show the papers for rafting regulations. We personally lost business of 5-6 lakhs and I paid for those losses from my personal savings. It didn’t just affect the ones who own rafting companies, but also impacted the vegetable sellers, the hotel businesses, and transportation companies. Not just the rafting companies, but everyone lost business. For us, rafting is not even about business; it’s more of survival. The government has no jobs for people.”

Photo: Aquaterra

“There were so many PILs filed in the previous years, but nothing was done about them. Something like this was not required. There could have been a time limit, like a month’s notice. If the government didn’t submit sufficient documents, then they could have imposed a ban,” adds Pradeep from Paddy Adventures.

Both Pradeep and Vipin are rafting instructors who have been in the industry for over twenty years. They feel that the potential of organised and responsible tourism in Uttarakhand is untapped largely due to poor leadership, especially when compared to states like Himachal Pradesh and Rajasthan.

“Currently, there is no right leadership in the state. But there’s a lot of scope. You just need the right kind of approaches and perspectives.  The first step needs to be taken properly but the first step is not happening. This recent ban is a big opportunity for that first step to take place,” shares Pradeep.

“They could have had a conversation and investigated more to see what’s there and what’s not before imposing the ban. Fortunately, Uttarakhand tourism has taken advice from rafting companies, including my own, to make some amendments in the policies. One was regarding rafting companies using smaller vehicles to carry big rafts. The other was about the training of guides to include mandatory first aid course and swift water rescue training,” adds Vipin.

“Now, before the season starts, things are looking positive.”

Globally, national parks are generally preserved and adventure sports are permitted in nature. There are rules, procedures, training, and guidelines in place. People are given the freedom to benefit from nature in a responsible manner, and the state largely plays the role of an enabler and facilitator. In a nation that truly cares about nature and understands its crucial role in sustaining the human population, the desire to protect the forest would come naturally. It would also take charge of communication that helps educate the population about the importance and benefits of acting responsibly.

The rafting season is about to start in Uttarakhand. Many are hoping that the court will reconsider the report submitted by the tourism board, and lift the ban.  Members of the recent meeting, who are senior rafting guides in established companies known for good compliance, addressed existing loopholes in the recent report.

“Right now everyone is sitting idle and waiting for something to happen. The ban was imposed in the wrong way, but luckily it was at the end of the season. Now, before the season starts, things are looking positive,” shares Pradeep.

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Features

Feb 20, 2019

The Death Zone

World champion free-diver Pierre Frolla sinks without air to depths unreachable by most scuba divers. One day he nearly didn't make it back to the surface.

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WRITTEN BY

Pierre Frolla

This story originally featured in print, in the fall 2015 issue of The Outdoor Journal

Deep down under the sea, so far away from where you live, I have been through the last seconds of my life.

In 2005 or 2006 (oddly I don’t remember), I had the worst accident of my freediving career. After being world champion in variable weight apnea with a dive at 123 metres, where I used a weighted sled for descent and returned to the surface by pulling myself along a line and using my fins, I was training to go deeper.

“No matter what happens to you, you’re stuck underwater. There’s nowhere else to go.”

In my sport, risks are quite important. Imagine you’re running a 400-m race. You start way too fast, and after a few hundred meters you’re out of breath and you just can’t go anymore. What do you do? You just stop, walk a bit and slowly catch your breath again. When you’re free diving, no matter what happens to you, you’re stuck underwater. There’s nowhere else to go.

The basis of my sport is quite simple. Going beyond 100 meters is mythic. Only a few hardcore specialists, including the “no limit” guys can go beyond that. Athletes use a weighted sled to dive down and an inflatable bag to return to the surface. This means that the free diver reduces his energy loss to the max, and that’s exactly why he is able to go so deep. The world record is held by Austrian Herbert Nitsch: 249.5 metres on June 6, 2012, in Santorini, Greece. The problem is that at those depths, water pressure is unbelievable! At 100 m, for example, the pressure is about 11 kg per square centimeter of your skin. Consequently, the volume of air inside the human body is pressured and reduced too. Take an empty but sealed plastic bottle: If you get to this kind of depth, it’ll greatly deform. That plastic bottle is a metaphor for your body. This also means that if water manages to seep somewhere inside you through your mouth or nose, it will do so with such force that it’ll destroy everything in its path. Drowning is inevitable, and no Apneist can be saved in such case, even if experienced help quickly intervenes.

At great depths, nitrogen becomes narcotic and leads to what is called nitrogen narcosis. This kind of intoxication from staying in great depths for too long is the same as when you drink too much. In other words, you lose total control of your body and mind, and you become unaware of potential dangers. Acting like that underwater can kill you, as the slightest mistake will have incredible consequences. In my personal training, I mix apnea in variable weight and other constant weight dives, where I dive only with the force of my arms and legs.

Today, my team and I decide to put the weight to 118 m. I know I can go down 115 m, but we want to push a little, as it’s part of training. Once down, I’ll have no choice but to go back on my own. I also know there will be a small parachute and an oxygen tank hooked to the sled, but neither will be for me. The bottle empties very slowly and inflates the balloon. Both serve only to return equipment back to the surface. It’s easier for us to work like that rather than starting a counterweight system.

If I want to live, I have only four seconds to start my ascent. But I am stunned and unable to move. I think about my team: What will they do when they go down to find me, lifeless and filled with water?

I feel my legs sinking knee-deep in a soft, thick and viscous material.

I begin my descent. I pass my midterm diver. Very soon, it gets dark. I do not have glasses because they would serve me for nothing in this environment. So I stand, with my eyes closed. I’m relaxed and sinking slowly in the water like I’m used to. I feel the pressure now, but I also suddenly feel the sledge slowing. Then it stops, softly. Usually it stops dead. When I realize that something is wrong, I feel my legs sinking knee-deep in a soft, thick and viscous material. It is almost as if moving sands are closing in on me at 112 meters below the surface. It is actually a mixture of clay and silt, a mound a few meters higher than the sonar onboard the boat. It wasn’t identified even though it stood in the stack axis of the descent of my sledge. It’s nobody’s fault; sonar is not so precise.

In no time, I understand what’s happening to me. I’m stuck. I cannot get my feet outside the box, and I know there’s no exit door. I simply do not have enough oxygen to both work my way out of this with strength and go up as I have expected, swimming, with my hands and fins. If I want to live, I have only four seconds to start my ascent. But I am stopped, stunned and unable to move. I think about my team: What will they do when they go down to find me, lifeless and filled with water? I’m dying; that’s it. Today is the day. In 15 seconds, I will have consumed all the remaining air I was keeping for my ascent. I am also a few seconds away from being caught by nitrogen narcosis. I will go crazy right before dying.

“Did I become a vegetable?”

Suddenly, I have an idea. The parachute. Yes! I trigger the opening of the small air valve, which then rushes into the parachute. It’s working but it’s slow and long. So I wait, very still, with my eyes closed. I have no other choice. I try to relax. Everything at 112 m is multiplied by 10. One consumed oxygen molecule at the surface is equal to 10 or 12 molecules consumed at that kind of depth. One second is equivalent to 10 seconds. Time and life are both very cruel at the bottom of an ocean. I am now barely conscious. Finally, I remember feeling the chute tearing me away from my trap like a champagne cork. The ascent back to the surface, back to life, is way too long. When I reach the surface, I have strangely not entirely lost consciousness, but my body no longer responds to my brain. Did I become a vegetable? My team, frightened, retrieves and saves me. If I had not been so well-trained, I would not have survived this scary adventure. Instead of the planned 2 minutes and 40 seconds that I went down under water for, I stayed 3 minutes and 50 seconds. In the boat, I gradually recover and quickly regain all my abilities.

Pierre Frolla reascending to the surface, following the guideline with the sled and parachute attached to it.

A few years later, I’m on a movie set doing 60-m free diving over and over all day long, and an air bubble is created in my brain on one of these repetitive dives. But instead of being redirected into my lungs, it remains stuck in my head. When ascending, inevitably, this tiny compressed air bubble suddenly decompresses and its size gets multiplied by six. I immediately lose consciousness. Later, I wake up in a hyperbaric chamber. I stay there for eight and a half hours. But when I wake up in that box, I cannot feel my body. I’m unable to move. For hours, I do not know if I will stay quadriplegic or not. This awakening in the box is one of my worst-ever memories of free diving. I do not understand what is happening to me. It takes me 30 minutes to remember that I was free diving and to deduce that I certainly had a bad accident.

Apnea is an extreme sport. I’ll remember it always. Yesterday I dived to 113 meters. I’ll do it again tomorrow.

Photos by Franck Seguin

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